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ⓘ Afraate




Afraate
                                     

ⓘ Afraate

Afraate alikuwa mtawa maarufu kwa kuandika mfululizo wa hotuba ishirini na tatu juu ya mafundisho na maisha ya Kikristo kadiri ya mapokeo ya Kisiria, ambayo yalikuwa hayajaathiriwa na utamaduni wa Ugiriki wa kale.

Tofauti na Efrem wa Syria, aliyeishi ndani ya mipaka ya Dola la Roma kama Wakristo karibu wote wa wakati ule, Afraate aliishi nje yake, upande wa mashariki, katika eneo la Adiabene Assyria, leo Iraq Kaskazini lililokuwa chini ya Wasasanidi, Dola la Persia leo Iranhata akaitwa ܚܟܝܡܐ ܦܪܣܝܐ, Hakkîmâ Pārsāyā, "Mwenye hekima wa Persia".

Kabla ya hayo 336-345 hakuna mwandishi wa jamii hiyo isipokuwa Bardesane wa Edesa.

Tangu kale anaheshimiwa kama mtakatifu.

Sikukuu yake huadhimishwa tarehe 29 Januari, lakini wengine wanasema si mwenyewe, bali somo wake fulani, mkaapweke kutoka Uajemi ambaye alikwenda Bethlehemu na kuongokea Ukristo. Baadaye akaishi katika nyumba ndogo nje ya mji wa Edessa. Mwishoni alikwenda Antiokia kutetea kwa maneno na maandishi imani sahihi dhidi ya Waario akafariki huko mwaka 378 hivi.

                                     

1. Maisha

Akitokea katika familia ya Kipagani, alichukua jina la Kikristo Yakobo wakati wa kubatizwa, jambo linalothibitisha kwamba jumuia yake ilifuata taratibu za Wakristo wa Kiyahudi.

Labda aliongoza monasteri ya Mar Matti karibu na Mosul na kufikia uaskofu.

                                     

2. Maandishi

Maandishi yake yanayoitwa kwa Kilatini "Demonstrationes", kutoka jina la Kisiria "Tahwiyāthā" yanaonyesha alivyoguswa na dhuluma za serikali za Persia dhidi ya Wakristo wake, hasa baada ya adui yake, Kaisari Konstantino Mkuu, kuelekeza Dola la Roma kwenye Ukristo.

Hotuba zake zimepangwa kialfabeti, kufuatana na herufi 22 za Kisiria, ila ya 23 na ya mwisho ni barua inayowaelekea watawa wenzake "Wana wa Agano".

                                     

3. Marejeo

  • Theodor Zahn, Forschungen I.
  • C. J. F. Sasse, Proleg, in Aphr. Sapientis Persae sermones homileticos Leipzig, 1879
  • Froom, LeRoy 1950. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers Kigezo:DjVulink and PDF 1. Retrieved on 2017-01-04.
  • Urdang, Laurence. Holidays and Anniversaries of the World. Detroit:Gale Research Company, 1985. ISBN 0-8103-1546-7.
  • J. Labourt, Le Christianisme dans lempire perse Paris, 1904
  • "Aphraates and the Diatessaron," vol. ii. pp. 180–186 of Burkitts Evangelion Da-Mepharreshe Cambridge, 1904
  • J. Forget, De Vita et Scriptis Aphraatis Louvain, 1882
  • Editions by W. Wright London, 1869, and J. Parisot ; the ancient Armenian version of 19 homilies edited, translated into Latin, and annotated by Antonelli Rome, 1756.
  • F. C. Burkitt, Early Eastern Christianity London, 1904
  • Besides translations of particular homilies by Gustav Bickell and E. W. Budge, the whole have been translated by G. Bert Leipzig, 1888.
  • articles on "Aphraates and Monasticism," by R. H. Connolly and Burkitt in Journal of Theological Studies 1905 pp. 522–539, 1906 pp. 10–15.
  • M. Lattke, "Taufe" und "untertauchen" in Aphrahats ܬܚܘܝܬܐ tahwyāṯā”, in Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity = Waschungen, Initiation und Taufe: Spätantike, Frühes Judentum und Frühes Christentum, ed. David Hellholm, Tor Vegge, Oyvind Norderval, Christer Hellholm BZNW 176/I–III; Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter, 2011 1115–38.


                                     

4. Viungo vya nje

  • Audience of Pope Benedict XVI on 21 November 2007
  • Demonstrations 2 and 7 translated scroll down
  • Demonstrations in Syriac with Latin translation.
  • Lexicon and index to Demonstrations.
  • English Translations of Demonstrations 1, 5, 6, 8, 10, 17, 21 and 22

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