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ⓘ Konstantino Mkuu




Konstantino Mkuu
                                     

ⓘ Konstantino Mkuu

Konstantino Mkuu alikuwa Kaisari wa Dola la Roma tangu mwaka 306 akitawala peke yake tangu 324.

Anakumbukwa kama mtawala aliyefaulu kumaliza kipindi cha vita vya wenyewe kwa wenyewe na kukubali Ukristo kama dini huru katika dola.

Alihamisha mji mkuu kutoka Roma kwenda Bizanti iliyoitwa baadaye Konstantinopoli.

                                     

1. Alivyoingia utawala

Baba yake Constantius alikuwa mmojawapo wa makaisari wanne walioshirikiana pamoja katika utawala wa dola. Baada ya kifo cha baba jeshi lake likamtangaza Konstantino kuwa Kaisari pia, lakini bila mawasiliano na wengine. Hata hivyo alikubaliwa kama Kaisari mdogo akihusika na majimbo ya Gallia na Britania.

Mwaka 311/312 fitina kati ya makaisari ilikuwa vita na Konstantino alilenga kupanua himaya yake. Mpinzani wake alikuwa hasa Maxentius aliyekaa Italia. Konstantino aliweza kumshinda kwenye mapigano kwenye daraja la Milvio mjini Roma.

Inasemekana kabla ya mapigano hayo alipatwa na ndoto alipoona msalaba wa Yesu Kristo katika jua akasikia sauti, "Utashinda chini ya alama hii!". Baadaye vikosi vya Konstatino vilikuwa na bendera iliyoonyesha herufi za chi-rho ambazo zilimaanisha jina la "Kristo".

Ushindi huu ulimfanya Konstantino awe mkuu wa nusu ya magharibi ya Dola la Roma.

                                     

2. Uhuru kwa Wakristo

Hadi mwaka 311 Wakristo waliteswa vikali kwa amri ya Kaisari Diokletiano. Konstatino alibadilisha siasa hii baada ya ushindi na kukubali Ukristo kwa mara ya kwanza kama dini iliyoruhusiwa rasmi, akafaulu pia kupata kibali cha Kaisari mwenzake.

Mwaka 313 alikutana na Licinius, Kaisari wa mashariki ya dola. Pamoja makaisari hao wawili walipatana kutoa tamko la Milano lililotangaza mwisho wa dhuluma dhidi ya Wakristo: "Baada ya kukutana hapa Milano sisi Kaisari Konstantino na Kaisari Licinius tumeamua kuwapa Wakristo pamoja na watu wote uhuru wa kuchagua dini yao ili Mungu wa mbinguni atupe fadhili zake."

Konstantino hakufanya Ukristo kuwa dini rasmi na yeye mwenyewe hakupokea ubatizo hadi muda mfupi kabla ya kifo chake.

Hakuna hakika kuhusu sababu zake: inajulikana ya kwamba mama yake Helena Mtakatifu alikuwa Mkristo lakini hakuna hakika alikuwa na athira gani katika malezi ya mwanawe.

                                     

3. Mtawala wa pekee

Tangu mwaka 316 Konstatino alianza kugongana na kaisari mwenzake wa mashariki Liceinius baada ya huyu kuonekana anasaidia mipango ya uasi dhidi ya Konstantino. Mwaka 324 alimshinda na kumkamata akawa mtawala wa pekee.

Hapa aliamua mara moja kuhamisha mji mkuu kutoka Roma kwenda Bizanti. Alitumia pesa nyingi kwa ujenzi wake na kuitangaza rasmi mwaka 330.

Aliratibu upya utawala wa dola akaweka misingi iliyoweza kudumu kwa miaka mingi baada yake.

Hata hivyo alipaswa kutetea mipaka ya dola dhidi ya Wagermanik na dhidi ya Waajemi.

                                     

4. Konstantino na Kanisa

Konstantino alionekana mapema kama msaidizi wa Wakristo. Machoni pa Wakristo mageuzi yale yalikuwa kama miujiza ya Mungu, kwa kuwa tangu Kaisari Nero mnamo mwaka 64 mateso ya Wakristo yalikuwa yamerudia tena na tena. Sasa yalikwisha, na Wakristo walipewa nafasi ya kusikilizwa na Kaisari mwenyewe.

Mwaka 321 Kaisari alitangaza Jumapili kama "siku ya jua" kuwa sikukuu na ofisi za serikali zilipumzika.

Mwaka 325 alialika maaskofu wa Kanisa lote kwa mtaguso wa kwanza wa Nisea. Mtaguso mkuu huu ulikuwa mkutano wa kwanza wa maaskofu wa Kikristo kutoka pande mbalimbali za dola la Roma na hata nje yake. Mkutano uliamua kuhusu masuala mablimbali ukakubali kanuni ya imani ya Nisea inayoendelea kutumika kanisani hadi leo.

Konstantino alivutwa kuitisha mtaguso huo ili kuingilia farakano kati ya Wakristo kuhusu Arius na mafundisho yake.

Kwa kukosa ujuzi wa mambo hayo, Kaisari alishawishwa mara kumkataa Arius asiendelee kufundisha, mara kumkataa mpinzani wake mkuu, askofu Atanasi na kuwaamuru waondoke katika mji wa Aleksandria.

Kanisa la Waorthodoksi lilimtangaza Konstantino kuwa mtakatifu.



                                     

5.1. Marejeo Vyanzo vya kale

  • Athanasius of Alexandria.
  • Apologia conta Arianos Defence against the Arians ca. 349.
  • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Apologia Contra Arianos. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 Agosti 2009.
  • Epistola de Decretis Nicaenae Synodi Letter on the Decrees of the Council of Nicaea ca. 352.
  • Newman, John Henry, trans. De Decretis. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 28 Septemba 2009.
  • Historia Arianorum History of the Arians ca. 357.
  • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Historia Arianorum. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 Agosti 2009.
  • Sextus Aurelius Victor, Liber de Caesaribus Book on the Caesars ca. 361.
  • Codex Theodosianus Theodosian Code 439.
  • Woods, David. "Where Did Constantine I Die?" Journal of Theological Studies 48:2 1997: 531–535.
  • Pohlsander, Hans. The Emperor Constantine. London & New York: Routledge, 2004a. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-31937-4 Paperback ISBN 0-415-31938-2
  • Rees, Roger. Layers of Loyalty in Latin Panegyric: AD 289–307. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-19-924918-0
  • Pohlsander, Hans. "Constantine I 306 – 337 A.D." De Imperatoribus Romanis 2004b. Accessed 16 Desemba 2007.
  • Rodgers, Barbara Saylor. "The Metamorphosis of Constantine." The Classical Quarterly 39 1989: 233–246.
  • Warmington, Brian. "Some Constantinian References in Ammianus." In The Late Roman World and its Historian: Interpreting Ammianus Marcellinus, edited by Jan Willem Drijvers and David Hunt, 166–177. London: Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0-415-20271-X
  • Udoh, Fabian E. "Quand notre monde est devenu chretien", review, Theological Studies, Juni 2008
  • Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180–395. New York: Routledge, 2005. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-10057-7 Paperback ISBN 0-415-10058-5
  • Jordan, David P. "Gibbons "Age of Constantine" and the Fall of Rome" History and Theory 8:1 1969, 71–96.
  • Pohlsander, Hans. "Crispus: Brilliant Career and Tragic End". Historia 33 1984: 79–106.
  • Williams, Stephen. Diocletian and the Roman Recovery. New York: Routledge, 1997. ISBN 0-415-91827-8
  • Scheidel, Walter. "The Monetary Systems of the Han and Roman Empires". In Scheidel, ed., Rome and China: Comparative Perspectives on Ancient World Empires. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-19-975835-7
  • Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine. New York: Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-23944-3
  • Weiss, Peter. "The Vision of Constantine." Translated by A.R. Birley in Journal of Roman Archaeology 16 2003: 237–59.
  • Lenski, Noel, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Hardcover ISBN 0-521-81838-9 Paperback ISBN 0-521-52157-2
  • MacMullen, Ramsay. Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-300-07148-5
  • Seidel, Lisa. "Constantine and Charlemagne." Gesta 15 1976: 237–239.
  • Wright, David H. "The True Face of Constantine the Great." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 41 1987: 493–507
  • Nicholson, Oliver. "Constantines Vision of the Cross." Vigiliae Christianae 54:3 2000: 309–323.
  • Veyne, Paul. LEmpire Gréco-Romain, Paris: Seuil, 2005. ISBN 2-02-057798-4
  • MacMullen, Ramsay. Christianizing the Roman Empire A.D. 100–400. New Heaven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 1984. ISBN 978-0-300-03642-8
  • Mattingly, David. An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire. London: Penguin, 2007. ISBN 978-0-14-014822-0
  • Mackay, Christopher S. "Lactantius and the Succession to Diocletian." Classical Philology 94:2 1999: 198–209.
  • Storch, Rudolph H. "The "Eusebian Constantine"." Church History 40 1971: 1–15.
  • Wiemer, Hans-Ulrich. "Libanius on Constantine." The Classical Quarterly 44 1994: 511–524.
  • Pears, Edwin. "The Campaign against Paganism A.D. 324." The English Historical Review 24:93 1909: 1–17.
  • Mommsen, T. and Paul M. Meyer, eds. Theodosiani libri XVI cum Constitutionibus Sirmondianis et Leges novellae ad Theodosianum pertinentes 2 in Latin. Berlin: Weidmann.
  • Veyne, Paul. Quand notre monde est devenu chrétien, Paris: Albin Michel, 2007. ISBN 978-2-226-17609-7
  • MacMullen, Ramsay. Constantine. New York: Dial Press, 1969. ISBN 0-7099-4685-6
  • Odahl, Charles Matson. Constantine and the Christian Empire. New York: Routledge, 2004. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Paperback ISBN 0-415-38655-1
  • Treadgold, Warren. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2
  • Lieu, Samuel N.C. and Dominic Montserrat. From Constantine to Julian: Pagan and Byzantine Views; A Source History. New York: Routledge, 1996.
  • Woods, David. "On the Death of the Empress Fausta." Greece & Rome 45 1988: 70–86.
                                     

5.2. Marejeo Marejeo mengine

  • Burckhardt, Jacob 1949. The Age of Constantine the Great. London: Routledge.
  • Pelikán, Jaroslav 1987. The excellent empire: the fall of Rome and the triumph of the church. San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 0062546368.
  • Baynes, Norman H. 1930. Constantine the Great and the Christian Church. London: Milford.
  • 1971 The conversion of Constantine. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 003083645X.
  • Cameron, Averil 1993. The later Roman empire: AD 284–430. London: Fontana Press. ISBN 0006861725.
                                     

6. Viungo vya nje

  • Professor Edwin Judge discusses Constantines legacy for a Centre for Public Christianity vodcast Archived Aprili 21, 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  • 12 Byzantine Rulers by Lars Brownworth of Stony Brook School grades 7–12. 40 minute audio lecture on Constantine.
  • This list of Roman laws of the fourth century shows laws passed by Constantine I relating to Christianity.
  • Firth, John B. Constantine the Great, the Reorganisation of the Empire and the Triumph of the Church BTM. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2012-03-15. Iliwekwa mnamo 2012-04-29.
  • House of Constantine bronze coins Illustrations and descriptions of coins of Constantine the Great and his relatives.
  • BBC North Yorkshires site on Roman York, Yorkshire and Constantine the Great
  • Constantine the Great A site about Constantine the Great and his bronze coins emphasizing history using coins, with many resources including reverse types issued and reverse translations.
  • Letters of Constantine: Book 1, Book 2, & Book 3
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, Constantine I
  • Constantines time in York on the History of York
  • Constantine I in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica


                                     
  • katika Uturuki wa leo, 350 alikuwa padri aliyesemekana kuwa alimfuata Konstantino Mkuu katika mji wake mpya ili kumsaidia kuuanzisha. Huko kwa miaka ishirini
  • 272 - Flavius Valerius Constantinus ambaye atajulikana kama Kaisari Konstantino Mkuu na kumaliza dhuluma ya Dola la Roma dhidi ya Wakristo 1902 - John Steinbeck
  • Roma maarufu hasa kwa sababu kulikuwa na ikulu mojawapo la Kaisari Konstantino Mkuu Baada ya yeye kuruhusu Ukristo katika Dola la Roma Hati ya Milano
  • serikali dhidi ya Wakristo zilipopungua, lakini zaidi karne IV, baada ya Konstantino Mkuu kuruhusu Ukristo katika Dola la Roma, walihama miji na vijiji wakaishi
  • mwanahistoria maarufu kwa ujuzi wake mpana sana. Alikuwa mshauri wa kaisari Konstantino Mkuu akaandika habari za maisha yake. Aliandika pia kuhusu Biblia na ufafanuzi
  • lilikabiliwa tangu zamani maarufu ni hasa Hati ya Milano iliyotolewa na Konstantino Mkuu mwaka 313 ili kuruhusu Ukristo katika Dola la Roma baada ya miaka karibu
  • Kanisa Katoliki kiasi cha kudai Kaisari Konstantino I aitishe Mtaguso wa kwanza wa Nisea mwaka 325. Huo mtaguso mkuu wa kwanza, uliokusanya maaskofu wengi
  • kumsaidia kwenye Mtaguso I wa Nisea mwaka 325 ulioitishwa na Kaisari Konstantino Mkuu hasa kwa lengo la kujadili mafundisho ya padri wa Aleksandria, jina
  • ya 4 alikuwa Askofu wa mji huo, Italia Kaskazini wakati wa kaisari Konstantino Mkuu kutoa Hati ya Milano ili kuruhusu Ukristo katika Dola la Roma. Tangu
  • dola ilibadilika aliposhika uongozi Irene kwa niaba ya mtoto wake mdogo Konstantino VI wa Bizanti. Mtaguso ulianza Konstantinopoli mwaka 786, lakini ulipoingiliwa

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