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ⓘ Papa Alexander VI




Papa Alexander VI
                                     

ⓘ Papa Alexander VI

Papa Alexander VI alikuwa Papa kuanzia tarehe 11 Agosti 1492 hadi kifo chake.

Alimfuata Papa Innocent VIII akafuatwa na Papa Pius III.

                                     

1. Maisha

Jina lake la kuzaliwa lilikuwa Roderic Llançol de Borja. Alikuwa Papa wa pili kutoka familia iliyoitwa nchini Italia Borgia. Papa Kalisti III, aliyekuwa wa kwanza, alimsaidia mpwa wake Roderic kupanda ngazi ndani ya Kanisa. Kijana asiyekuwa na mafunzo yoyote wa kiroho, asiyepokea daraja takatifu ya upadri bado, alipewa cheo na mapato ya askofu mara kadhaa katika dayosisi mbalimbali.

Mwaka 1456 alipewa cheo cha kardinali na mwaka 1458 akapadrishwa.

Alizaliana watoto na mke wake wa kando Vannozza dei Cattani akaendelea kuwaangalia na kuwatunza hata alipokuwa Papa. Arusi ya binti yake Lucrezia Borgia ilisheherekewa rasmi katika jumba la Kipapa la Vatikano.

Lakini kabla hajachaguliwa kuwa Papa alimwacha Vannozza akaanza uhusiano na binti Giulia Farnese aliyezaa naye binti mwaka 1492, alipokuwa Papa tayari.

Mwanawe Cesare Borgia alipewa cheo cha askofu alipokuwa na umri wa miaka 16 na cha kardinali alipofikia miaka 18, lakini bila kupewa sakramenti ya daraja takatifu. Baadaye aliacha maisha ya Kanisa akafanywa na baba yake jemadari wa jeshi la Papa.

Aleksanda VI amejulikana pia kwa uamuzi wake wa kugawa dunia kati ya Hispania na Ureno katika mkataba wa Tordesillas mwaka 1494. Mkataba huu ulikuwa msingi wa koloni la Kireno la Brazil na utawala wa Hispania juu ya nchi nyingine za Amerika Kusini na Amerika ya Kati.

Sifa yake nyingine ilikuwa kuhamasisha sanaa za kila aina, kama ilivyokuwa kawaida kwa Mapapa wa Renaissance.

Vilevile alianza urekebisho wa ofisi za Papa.

Wapinzani walimwona kama mfano mbaya wa upotovu wa Upapa wakati wake, wakamsema hata kuliko ukweli wa makosa ambayo aliyafanya na aliyatubu kabla hajafa.

                                     

2. Marejeo

  • John Julius Norwich, Absolute Monarchs: A History of the Papacy, Random House, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4000-6715-2
  • Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition.
  • Indigenous peoples and human rights ", Patrick Thornberry, Manchester University Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-7190-3794-8
  • DIARIO BORJA BORGIA Spanish
  • John Burchard, Diaries 1483–1492
  • The Historical Encyclopedia of World slavery", Editor Junius P. Rodriguez, ABC-CLIO, 1997, ISBN 978-0-87436-885-7
  • "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe ", Thomas Foster Earle, K. J. P. Lowe, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-521-81582-6
  • Eamon Duffy, Saints & Sinners: A History of the Popes Yale Nota Bene, 2002
  • That the world may believe: the development of Papal social thought on aboriginal rights ", Michael Stogre S.J, Médiaspaul, 1992, ISBN 978-2-89039-549-7
  • A violent evangelism", Luis N. Rivera, Luis Rivera Pagán, Westminster John Knox Press, 1992, ISBN 978-0-664-25367-7
  • Peter de Rossa, Vicars of Christ: The Dark Side of the Papacy Corgi, 1989
  • Burkle-Young, Francis A., "The election of Pope Alexander VI 1492", in Miranda, Salvador. Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
                                     

3. Viungo vya nje

  • Thirty-Two Years with Alexander VI, The Catholic Historical Review, Volume 8, no. 1, April, 1922, pp. 55–58.
  • Borja o Borgia Kihispania
  • Diario Borja - Borgia Kihispania
  • Francisco Fernández de Bethencourt - Historia Genealógica y Heráldica Española, Casa Real y Grandes de España, tomo cuarto Kihispania
  • Papa Alexander VI katika Kamusi Elezo ya Kikatoliki
  • Una rama subsistente del linaje Borja en América española, por Jaime de Salazar y Acha, Académico de Número de la Real Academia Matritense de Heráldica y Genealogía Kihispania
  • 1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the world in Half Archived Septemba 4, 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  • BOLETÍN DE LA REAL ACADEMIA MATRITENSE DE HERÁLDICA Y GENEALOGÍA Kihispania

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